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How are courses "rated" to determine the course rating and slope?

It is my understanding that the USGA sends out a team to rate and slope a golf course. They look at the course, perform some measurements and also may play it. The team then determines the difficulty of the golf course for a scratch golfer and determines the course rating. If it seems a golfer will shoot less than par, then the rating will be less than 72 (if par is 72 for that course). If it seems it will play more difficult then the rating may be something like 74 for example. The slope indicates the difficulty for a bogey golfer. An average slope would be 113. A more difficult course will have a number higher than that and a less difficult would have a number lower than 113.

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